Waxes, resins, silicone and polyols

Absolute, kinematic, and dynamic viscosities of highly viscous liquids and their temperature dependency


Waxes melt at over 40 °C without decaying and demonstrate significantly decreasing viscosity above the melting point. Synthetic waxes and resins are recovered mainly from crude oil. They are used to manufacture lacquers, soaps, drugs, and turpentine. Liquid silicone is a clear, colorless, neutral, odorless, and hydrophobic liquid with a wide range of viscosity. Among other things, it is used as an anti-foaming agent, hydraulic liquid, mold-release agent, to make items water-repellent, and as an anti-friction agent and lubricant. Silicone liquids of higher viscosity are used as liquids in viscose coupling, as electrical insulating material, heat transfer liquids, and as an absorptive agent. Also referred to as polyols, the polyalcohols are usually highly viscous to solid at room temperature. Polyvinylalcohols (PVA) are reactive, nonhazardous, very good film formers, and serve as thickeners for glues, salves, and emulsifiers, for coating packaging and as filling material and additives for lacquers, motor oils, etc. What the material groups mentioned above have in common is their extremely wide range of viscosity and the strong changes at different temperatures.

Along with precise viscosity measurement and thermostating across the entire range of application, the LAUDA Scientific PVS system also offers the automation convenience necessary in shift work. Highly viscous samples can be dosed automatically, diluted with suitable solvents, and extracted. Afterwards, the viscometers are cleaned and dried without having to be taken out of the thermostat.

Recommended standards

  • ASTM D 445
    Standard Test Method for Kinematic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity)
  • DIN 51562
    Measurement of kinematic viscosity by means of the Ubbelohde viscometer

Typical configuration

(Image similar)

PVS 1/4 system with four S 5 measuring stands in the Viscotemp 24 viscothermostat from 20 to 100 °C, manual dosing using syringe, automatic viscometer cleaning for the viscosity range of 2 to a maximum of 3,000 mm2/s


  • PVS 1/4 control unit
  • Software module TEMP-DLL
  • Four S 5 measuring stands
  • Ubbelohde viscometer type Ic, II, III, IV (with tubing for filling, diluting, and extraction)
  • Two VM 4/HT cleaning modules
  • Two external VRP pumps
  • Special sample locks for samples with high viscosity
  • Viscotemp 24 viscothermostat and cover plate
  • RS 232 interface for Viscotemp 24
  • External cooler for T<40 °C

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Applications Lubricants, oils and fuels

Lubricants and fuels

Viscosity index and kinematic viscosities of SAE/ISO motor oils

Insulating oils

Kinematic viscosity and interfacial tension of transformer oils


Recovery rate in tertiary oil production with surface active substances

Oil transport

Pumpability of crude oils (record of viscosity temperature characteristics)